Instructions to Authors

Pakistan Journal of Medicine and Dentistry accepts manuscripts prepared in accordance with the strict requirements mentioned by Higher Education Commission.

All material submitted for publication should be sent exclusively to the Pakistan Journal of Medicine and Dentistry. We accept only those manuscripts or data that have not been previously published or submitted elsewhere for publication. If data found in any other publication it will consider scam and is liable for disciplinary consequences by reporting to Pakistan Medical & Dental Council and Higher Education Commission. However, re-analysis of previously published data can be accepted.

Authors can submit their manuscripts online via journal’s online submission system at https://https://pjmd.zu.edu.pk/ or http://ojs.zu.edu.pk/ojs/index.php/pjmd/about/submissions. Manuscripts must be submitted by corresponding author of the manuscript, and should not be submitted by anyone on his behalf. A successful electronic submission of a manuscript will be followed by an acknowledgement email to the principal/corresponding author.

A duly filled-in Corresponding Author’s information Performa (CA) and authors consent form (AC) is mandatory for publication. The duly signed forms must be returned to the journal’s office as soon as possible. Delay in submitting the forms will result in delay in the processing and publication of the manuscript.

Any queries therein should be addressed directly to [email protected] AUTHORSHIP CRITERIA/AUTHOR INFORMATION

The corresponding author preferably be a medical graduate/M.phil/PhD/other relevant medical fields. Moreover, PJMD allows only one author to contribute as corresponding author.

Authors must provide a final list of authors with their contact details such as workplace, telephone/cell numbers and E-mail addresses on the manuscript at the time of submission, ensuring the correct sequence of the names of authors.

Only six authors are allowed in a single institution / single discipline study. In a multi institution / multi-disciplinary and international collaboration research, Editorial Board shall guide on individual case basis.

Authorship credit should only be given to those who have participated appropriately in the research and also to take public responsibility for the content. Substantial contributions to conception and design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, drafting the article or revising it critically and final approval of the version to be published. Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group, alone does not justify authorship. All persons designated as authors should qualify for authorship & all those who qualify should be listed.

REVIEWERS BY AUTHORS

The submitting author is required to invite a minimum of two individuals with requisite domain knowledge to review the article. Prior to the forwarding of a review invitation, each author-submitted reviewer is carefully checked by PJMD editorial staff with a specific focus on relevant scientific expertise.

INITIAL ASSESMENT

Every submitted paper is evaluated by assistant editor and managing editor for archival and statistical analysis if applicable. The staff bibliographer also examines and authenticates the references and checks for plagiarism. The manuscript then processes for initial assessment and sent to the editors of the journal and then to external reviewers.

PEER REVIEW

After the initial submission criteria, we (PJMD) follow double blind peer review process of manuscript screening. Peer Review may take three to four to months after the initial submission of the manuscript. The editors do not serve as peer reviewers for the journal but the editors reserve the right to edit the accepted article.

MATERIAL FOR PUBLICATION

The material submitted for publication may be in the form of an Original research (Randomized controlled trial – RCT, Quasi experimental study, Case Control study, Cohort study, Observational Study with statistical support, Meta-analysis etc.), Review Article, a Case Report, Short Communication, Student’s Corner (Knowledge Attitude and practice (KAP) study) and a Letter to the Editor.

Any study three years prior to date of submission is judged by Editorial Board for its suitability as many changes take place in the subject area of the study, over the period of time. In exceptional cases, if Editorial Board is of the view that data is important, article can be reviewed accordingly.

PEPARATION OF MANUSCRIPTS

Manuscript must be submitted in typed form on MS Word. Authors should consult the journal’s instructions to authors before submitting their manuscripts.

Font: Times New Roman

Font size: 12

Spacing: Double spacing throughout the article.

Manuscripts should contain the following sections:

COVER LETTER

A cover letter that includes the information:

  • An explanation of why your manuscript should be published in Pakistan Journal of Medicine and Dentistry.
  • An explanation of any issues relating to journal policies.
  • Confirmation that all authors have approved the manuscript for submission.
  • Confirmation that the content of the manuscript has not been published, or submitted for publication elsewhere.
TITLE PAGE

The title page should carry:

  • The title of the article (not more than 10 words).
  • The name of each author, with designation, name of the department(s) and institution(s) to which the work should be attributed.
  • The name and office address with email of the corresponding author.
  • Source(s) of funding in the form of grants, equipment(s), drugs, or all of these.
LANGUAGE REQUIREMENTS

Authors are advised to write manuscripts in British English style, in past tense and third person indirect form of narration. Manuscripts containing language inconsistencies will not be published. Authors should seek professional assistance for correction of grammatical, scientific and typographical errors before submission of the revised version of the article for publication.

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

An original article should have minimum word limit of about 2000 words with two tables and two figures supported by 30 references. Maximum length of the original manuscript should not exceed 3000 words including title page, table and references.

Sub-headings should not be used in any section of the script except in the abstract. All randomized trials should also provide a proof of being registered at the International RCT Registry.

ABSTRACT

A structured abstract of 250 words is required for original articles. Minimize the use of abbreviations and do not cite references in the abstract. The abstract must include the following separate sections:

  • Background: The context and objective of the study
  • Methodology: The methods/technique used in the study
  • Results: The main findings
  • Conclusions: A brief summary and potential implications
KEYWORDS

Three to ten keywords representing the main content of the article from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) on NCBI website. (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/)

INTRODUCTION

This section should explain the background to the study, its aims, a summary of the latest literature and rationale of the study. The section should highlight the purpose of the article using only strictly pertinent references. It is preferable not to cite more than 10 references in this segment.

METHODOLOGY

In this section, the sampling procedure for the research should be described (patients or laboratory animals, including controls). The age, sex and other important characteristics should be clearly defined with name of ethical review committee of your organization. The methods should be written with references, apparatus (the manufacturer’s name and address in parentheses), and procedures in sufficient detail to allow others workers to repeat the procedure. In addition, the statistical methods used to analyze the data should also be specified.

For statistical analysis, the specific test used should be named, preferably with reference for an uncommon test. Exact p-values and 95% confidence interval (CI) limits must be mentioned. All percentages must be accompanied with actual numbers.

RESULTS

This section should include the findings of the study, important observations and findings must be highlighted. The data of statistical analysis can take the form of text, tables, (each table, complete with title and footnotes) and legends for illustrations and photo-graphs. Each component should begin on a new page. Minimum number of tables and illustrations should not exceed four.

DISCUSSION

In this section only the new and important aspects of study should be highlighted. Repetition and redundancy of data should be avoided. The inferences of findings and their limitations, including implications for future research should be discussed with references from latest relevant studies.

CONCLUSION(S)

This should state clearly the main conclusions and provide an explanation of the importance and relevance of the study to the field. The conclusions should be matched with the objectives of the study.

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

If abbreviations are used in the text, they should be defined in the text at first use, and a list of abbreviations should be provided after conclusion.

DECLARATIONS

All manuscripts must contain the following sections under the heading ‘Declarations’:

If any of the sections are not relevant to your manuscript, please include the heading and write ‘Not applicable’ for that section.

  1. CONFLICT OF INTEREST

Any conflict of interest should be declared by all authors. This may include grants or honorarium, credits and promotions, memberships or any personal or professional relationships which may appear to influence the manuscript.

Such competing interests are not unethical but should be declared.

If there are no conflict of interests, authors should still include this heading and write “none to declare.” or“Authors declared any conflict of interest.

  1. ETHICS APPROVAL/DISCLOSURE

Manuscripts reporting studies involving human participants, human data or human tissue must:

  • Include a statement on ethics approval and consent, the name of the ethics committee that approved the study and the committee’s reference number if appropriate.
  • Studies involving animals must include a statement on ethics approval.

If your manuscript does not report on or involve the use of any animal or human data or tissue, please state “Not applicable” in this section.

  1. FUNDING

Any company or institution who has financially contributed to the study must be acknowledged.

  1. PATIENT CONSENT

Authors must state that the consent of the patient/guardian was taken prior to the writing of the manuscript if applicable

  1. AVAILABILITY OF DATA AND MATERIALS

All manuscripts must include an ‘Availability of data and materials’ statement. Data availability statements can take one of the following forms (or a combination of more than one if required for multiple datasets).

If your manuscript does not contain any data, please state ‘Not applicable’ in this section.

  1. AUTHORS’ CONTRIBUTIONS

The individual contributions of authors to the manuscript should be specified in this section.

Please use initials to refer to each author’s contribution in this section.

For example: “FC analyzed and interpreted the patient data. RH performed the histological examination, and was a major contributor in writing the manuscript”.

  1. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Please acknowledge anyone who contributed towards the article who does not meet the criteria for authorship.

For example: “I like to acknowledge hospital staff and doctors for their immense contribution”.

If you do not have anyone to acknowledge, please write “Not applicable” in this section.

REFERENCES

Vancouver reference style and more than 50% of the references should be from last five years from the date of submission. A minimum of 25 references should be cited.

See below few examples of references listed in the Vancouver Style.

Journal Reference:

Liu SJ, Liu JW, Cong JZ, Tong L, Zhang Y, Li XM, et al. Preparation of Neogambogic Acid Nanoliposomes and its Pharmacokinetics in Rats. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2018; 28:937-40.

Book Reference:

Katzung BG. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Basic and clinical pharmacology. ed. 10th, San Francisco: McGraw Hill; 2006.

Book Chapter Reference:

Lal G, Clark OH. Thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal. In: Brunicardi FC, Andersen DK, Billiar TR, Dunn DL, Hunter JG, Matthews JB, Eds. Schwartz’s Principles of Surgery. ed.10th, New York; Mc-Graw Hill; 2015: p.1521-96.

URL (WebPage):

Iridogoniodysgenesis, Type 1. University of Arizona College of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Science.

http://disorders.eyes.arizona.edu/disorders/iridogoniodysgene sis-type-1. (Accessed on 3/22/2016).

E-citations:

Citations for articles/material published exclusively online or in open access (free-to-view), must contain the accurate Web addresses (URLs) at the end of the reference(s), except those posted on an author’s Web site (unless editorially essential), e.g. ‘Reference: Available from URL’.

Echocardiographic     features    of     dilated     cardiomyopathy    [Internet].

Available  from:

https://123sonography.com/node/ 983 [cited 27 November 2016].

Some important points to remember:

All references must be complete and accurate.

  • List all authors if the total number of authors is six or less and for more than six authors use et al. after six (the term “et al.” should be in italics).
  • Date of access should be provided for online citations.
  • Journal names should be abbreviated according to the Index Medicus/MEDLINE.
  • Punctuation should be properly applied as mentioned in the examples given above.
  • Self-citation should be avoided.

The author must verify the references against the original documents before submitting the article.

  • The Editorial Board may ask authors to submit either soft or hard copy (full length) of all the articles cited in the reference part of the manuscript.
  1. REVIEW ARTICLE

A review should have unstructured Abstract (200 words), an introduction (200 words), and Discussion (up to 2000 words), with 40 to 60 references

Reviews are a feature of the journal that may include, but are not limited to, the following types of articles:

  • Systematic and substantial syntheses of specific research areas,
  • Evaluations of progress in specified areas,
  • Critical assessments with respect to issues.
ABSTRACT

The abstract should not exceed 200 words and should be unstructured. Please minimize the use of abbreviations and do not cite references in the abstract.

KEYWORDS

Three to ten keywords representing the main content of the article from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) on NCBI website. (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/)

INTRODUCTION (200 WORDS)

The introduction section should explain the background to the article, its aims, a summary of a search of the existing literature and the issue under discussion.

DISCUSSION (2000 WORDS)

This should contain the body of the article, and may also be broken into subsections with short, informative headings.

CONCLUSION(S)

This should state clearly the main conclusions and include an explanation of their relevance or importance to the field.

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

If abbreviations are used in the text they should be defined in the text at first use, and a list of abbreviations should be provided

DECLARATIONS

For this section see details in original article section.

REFERENCES

Vancouver reference style and latest references (last five years) should be specified in this section. A minimum of 40-60 references should be cited.

  1. CASE REPORT

Case Report: Short report of cases, clinical experience, drug trials and adverse effects can be submitted. Maximum length should not exceed 1500 words, maximum number of 10 references, one table or two illustrations. It must contain genuinely new information.

Its format should: Title, Abstract, Introduction, Case Report, Discussion and References. Short report of cases, clinical experience, drug trials and adverse effects can be submitted. Case reports should not include review of literature.

ABSTRACT

The abstract should not exceed 150 words. Please minimize the use of abbreviations and do not cite references in the abstract. The abstract must include the following separate sections:

  • Introduction: why the case should be reported and its novelty
  • Case presentation: a brief description of the patient’s clinical and demographic details, the diagnosis, any interventions and the outcomes
  • Conclusion: a brief summary of the clinical impact or potential implications of the case report
KEYWORDS

Three to ten keywords representing the main content of the article from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) on NCBI website. (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/)

INTRODUCTION (100 WORDS)

The Background section should explain the background to the case report or study, its aims, a summary of the existing literature.

CASE PRESENTATION (500 WORDS)

This section should include a description of the patient’s relevant demographic details, medical history, symptoms and signs, treatment or intervention, outcomes and any other significant details.

DISCUSSION (1000 WORDS)

This should emphasize present findings and the variations or similarities with other work done in the field by other workers. Detailed data should not be repeated in the discussion again. Emphasize the new and important aspects of the study and the conclusions that follow from them.

CONCLUSION(S)

This should state clearly the main conclusions and include an explanation of their relevance or importance to the field.

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

If abbreviations are used in the text, they should be defined in the text at first use, and a list of abbreviations should be provided.

DECLARATIONS

For this section see details in original article section.

REFERENCES

Vancouver reference style and latest references (last five years) should be specified in this section. A minimum of 10 references should be cited.

  1. META – ANALYSES

Meta-Analyses are a feature of the journal that may include, but are not limited to, the quantitative, scientific synthesis of research results within the scope of Pakistan journal of Medical and Dentistry.

Authors must clearly acknowledge any work upon which they are building, both published and unpublished.

ABSTRACT

The abstract of the manuscript should not exceed 300 words and must be structured into separate sections. (Non-structured abstract is also acceptable in case of a narrative review).

Background:

The context and objective of the review.

Methods:

How the review was performed, including data sources, study eligibility criteria, participants and interventions; study appraisal and statistical tests used.

Results:

The main findings, including results of search and assessment of evidence base.

Conclusion(s):

Brief summary and potential implications for policy/management and research.

Registration:

authors are asked to provide registration information about the meta-analysis, including a registration number, if available.

KEYWORDS

Three to ten keywords representing the main content of the article from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) on NCBI website. (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/)

MAIN TEXT

The Main text should consist of following sections.

INTRODUCTION

This section should be written clearly explain why a meta-analysis on this topic was needed and what it aimed to contribute to the field. The section should end with the main question(s) of the review and a brief statement of what is being reported with reference to participants, interventions, outcomes and study design.

METHODS

This should include a clear description of all stages of the review process and the design of the review, the setting, the type of participants or materials involved, and the type of analysis. Describe the methods used for assessing risk of bias of individual studies, including specification of whether this was done at the study or outcome level, and how this information was used in any data synthesis. Discussions with experts and stakeholders at early stages should help identify the methodological standards for the topic of interest.

  • Data extraction strategy: what sort of data do you expect to find or have finally extracted and how you computed effect sizes and their variability.
  • Data synthesis and presentation: report the qualitative and quantitative methods you used to synthesize and present the data, as well as elements you anticipate or have identified such as effect modifiers, type of methodologies and their current appraisal, biases etc.
RESULTS

The results sections may also be broken into subsections with short, informative headings. Results of each stage of the review should be clearly reported, including:

  • Review statistics: e. the number of articles found in the search and included at each inclusion/exclusion level, along with any relevant information on the distribution of the studies found (e.g. geographical location and source of study). A flow diagram (conforming to relevant reporting guidelines e.g. PRISMA) reporting the inclusion/exclusion process should be presented.
  • Study quality assessment: a summary of what the different studies found, the confidence in the results of the different studies, what biases were present in each of the studies, and quality of the different studies needs to be included.
  • Quantitative synthesis/Meta-analysis (when possible): if effect sizes can be calculated for the included studies which measure similar outcomes then a quantitative assessment of these effect sizes should be carried out, including summary statistics of the mean effect, confidence in the mean, the range of effects and sources of heterogeneity in the effect.
  • Evidence of effectiveness: a detailed evaluation of the information on the impact of the intervention that the papers give, what evidence of an effect is there and what is the strength of the evidence including the critical appraisal of the articles. In addition, there needs to be an unbiased assessment of what level of evidence the studies provide.
DISCUSSION

Speculation within the discussion section should be limited only to suggestions for further enquiry or analysis e.g. potential reasons for heterogeneity in outcome, including the possible effect modifiers and impact of variation in the study variables such as experimental design. A section on review limitations should normally be included, including limitations due to the search strategy and bias in articles found. Gaps in the information provided by the studies should also be highlighted.

CONCLUSION(S)

This should state clearly the main conclusions of the article and give a clear explanation of the implication for policy/management summarizing the state of the evidence base and the extent to which this informs decision making in relation to the review question and any measure of uncertainty surrounding the outcome.

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

If abbreviations are used in the text they should be defined in the text at first use, and a list of abbreviations should be provided.

DECLARATIONS

For this section see details in original article section.

REFERENCES

Vancouver reference style and latest references (last five years) should be specified in this section. A minimum of 25 references should be cited.

  1. CLINICAL TRIALS

Clinical Trials submitted for publication must be registered in public registry, provide registration proof and all RCTs must be based on CONSORT statement. Unregistered trials will not be published.

  1. STUDENT’S CORNER

Students contributions of CHS research based on KAP study is also accepted. The general format of the Original Article should be followed 1000 to 1500 words of content.

  1. LETTERS TO EDITORS

Letters to Editors should be concise and not exceed 400 words with a maximum of 5 references.

TABLES

Legends to illustrations should be typed on the same sheet. Tables should be simple, and should supplement rather than duplicate information in the text; tables repeating information will be omitted. Each table should have a title and be typed in double space without horizontal and vertical lines.

Tables should be numbered consecutively with Roman numerals in the order they are mentioned in the text. When Graphs, scatter grams, or histograms are submitted, the numerical data on which they are based should be supplied.

S.I. UNITS

System International (S.I.) Unit measurement should be used. Imperial measurement units like inches, feet, etc. are not acceptable.

FIGURES AND PHOTOGRAPHS

Photographs, X-rays, CT scans, MRI and photomicro-graphs should be sent in digital format with a minimum resolution of 3.2 mega pixels in JPEG/TIFF compression. Photographs must be sharply focused. Most photographs taken with a mobile phone camera do not fulfill the necessary requirements and, therefore, not acceptable for printing. The background of photographs must be neutral and preferably white.

Scanned photographs must have 300 or more dpi resolution. These figures and photographs must be cited in the text in consecutive order.

GALLEY PROOF READING

Final version of manuscript is sent to corresponding author for galley proof reading before publication to avoid any mistakes. Corrections should be conveyed clearly and Editor informed by e-mail.

PROCESSING AND PUBLICATION CHARGES

There are no article processing and publication charges.

PRINTED COPY

One printed copy will be supplied to the corresponding author. To ensure safe delivery give complete postal address.

PLAGIARISM POLICY

In order to have checks and balances against unethical practices, the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan has developed a Plagiarism Policy which is applicable to all the Higher Educational Institutions of the country. Ziauddin University is a strong proponent of academic integrity and intellectual honesty. The Plagiarism Policy of HEC is strictly applied in all the academic concerns of the university including PJMD. The policy should be adhered to when preparing a manuscript of original work to be submitted to the PJMD. A covering letter should also be provided, certifying that the content of the manuscript is not plagiarized.