Rapid progress is being made in the development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, allowing repeated findings of new genes and a more in-depth analysis of genetic polymorphisms behind the pathogenesis of a disease. In a field such as psychiatry, characteristic of vague and highly variable somatic manifestations, these technologies have brought great advances towards diagnosing various psychiatric and mental disorders, identifying high-risk individuals and towards more effective corresponding treatment. Psychiatry has the difficult task of diagnosing and treating mental disorders without being able to invariably and definitively establish the properties of its illness. This calls for diagnostic technologies that go beyond the traditional ways of gene manipulation to more advanced methods mainly focusing on new gene polymorphism discoveries, one of them being NGS. This enables the identification of hundreds of common and rare genetic variations contributing to behavioral and psychological conditions. Clinical NGS has been useful to detect copy number and single nucleotide variants and to identify structural rearrangements that have been challenging for standard bioinformatics algorithms. The main objective of this article is to review the recent applications of NGS in the diagnosis of major psychiatric disorders, and hence gauge the extent of its impact in the field. A comprehensive PubMed search was conducted and papers published from 2013-2018 were included, using the keywords, “schizophrenia” or “bipolar disorder” or “depressive disorder” or “attention deficit disorder” or “autism spectrum disorder” and “next-generation sequencing”
Gene Polymorphism; Next-Generation Sequencing; Genome Wide Association Study; Psychiatric Diagnosis.
- Maheen Nisar
- Areeba Shaikh
- Erum Mir Ghazi
- Ailiya Haider
- Duaa Nini
- Student, Ziauddin University, Karachi, Pakistan.