Temporomandibular joint (TMJ), is a synovial joint, involves two bones particularly mandible and temporal bone. Since TMJ involve muscles of mastication and jaw movement therefore, its disorders damages surrounding tissues and minimizes its function. The etiology of TMJ disorders is complex and multifactorial including genetic, traumatic, inflammatory, degenerative and idiopathic disorders as well as behavioral factors (parafunctional habits). Generally females are more affected because of increased level of estrogen hormone affecting bone and cartilage; moreover, emotional factors (anxiety, stress and depression) are also higher in females compared to males. Genetic disorders of TMJ include many genes, which contribute in bone formation and inflammation mediation.
This article is focused on etiology of temporomandibular joint disorders and involvement of certain genes and other predisposing factors leading to pathophysiology of its development. Information regarding TMJ disorders was retrieved through PubMed, Medline and other authentic search engines available in the University, information was collected through reviews, research, and epidemiological studies published up to 2016.
This review article concludes urgent management is sought in 1-2% young children, 5% teenagers and 5-12% adults. In order to avoid any iatrogenic injury it is mandatory to do prior extensive and detailed physical examination of TMJ.


TMJ Disorders; Genes; Bruxism; Malocclusion; Estrogen.


Volume 8 Issue-3 2019
ISSN : 2308-2593
Publisher Name : Ziauddin University
  • Farah Azhar
  • Aliya Sani
  • Saeeda Baig
    • Department of Biochemistry, Ziauddin University, Karachi.