- Original Article
- Review Article
- Kap Study
- Case Reports
The articles for the PJMD Volume 8 Issue 2 2019 are listed below. The articles are in PDF Format which requires Adobe Acrobat Reader for viewing.
MOLECULAR MEDICINE: A PARADIGM SHIFT IN CLINICAL SCENARIO
Spectacular advances have been made in molecular medicine during the last few decades including the mapping of human genome project which has revolutionized the understanding of basic molecular mechanisms involved in the etio-pathogenesis of most of the diseases. The completion of Human Genome Project disclosed about 90% of the human genome. This draft of human genome sequences has identified at least 38,000 genes and opened the door for genomic medicine and molecular studies. However, more investigation about the potential function and interaction of these genes was required to improve the clinical information in medicine1.
- Shumaila Usman
- Talat Mirza
- Department of Research, Ziauddin University, Karachi
ASSOCIATION OF MOTHER’S BLOOD GROUP WITH CORD BLOOD RELATIVE TELOMERE LENGTH
Cord blood relative telomere length(RTL), the biological chronometer which can determine life span, has been found highly variable at birth due to fetal programming under the influence of different risk factors and markers of biological aging. This study was designed to compare RTL of maternal and new born and its association with blood groups of mothers as well as other related maternal and new born parameters.
Maternal and cord RTL’s were measured in 250 samples using a quantitative real-time PCR method. Correlation was used to check the association of maternal and cord blood RTL. Kruskal Wallis was used to examine the comparison of cord blood RTL with maternal demographics.
Maternal mean age (Mean±S.D) was 27.17± 5.11 and paternal mean age was 34.03 ± 4.90. Maternal and cord RTL showed 0.01 level of significance at 95% confidence level. Cord blood RLT kilo base pair (kbp) (6.76± 1.35) was higher than maternal RTL (6.43± 1.35).Maternal blood groups were distributed highest (n=84, 33%) as B+ve and the lowest (n=1, 0.4%) as B-ve. Regarding maternal telomere length the longest was (6.68 ±1.34) in A+ve group and A-ve had the smallest length 5.32 ±0.95, however the results were not statistically significant (0.134). On contrary cord blood RTL was longest in O-ve blood group, 6.95±0.56and smallest in B-ve 5.41 RTL with p-value 0.159.
Cord Blood RLT was higher than in maternal blood in target population of Karachi, Pakistan. The longest maternal RTL was in A+ve and smallest in O+ve cord blood. Majority of mothers were B+ve followed by O+ve.
Telomere; Cord Blood; Blood groups; Parity; Gravidity.
- Sadia Farrukh
- Saeeda Baig
- Department of Biochemistry
- Rubina Hussain
- Hina Rajani
- Zoya Ibad
- Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Ziauddin University, Karachi, Pakistan.
DIAGNOSIS OF RETINOBLASTOMA IN CHILDREN
The purpose of this study is to assess radiological features (CT and Ultrasound) of retinoblastoma in clinically susceptible patients.
Methods: This study has been conducted at Jinnah Medical College and Hospital from January 2016 to January 2017. 39 children with clinical diagnosis of retinoblastoma referred from Layton Rahmatulla Benevolent Trust (LRBT) Eye hospital and by other eye clinics to Jinnah Medical College and Hospital Karachi. Ultrasound and CT scan of orbit of all children under the age 5 years was performed to see local tumor extent and associated intracranial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (trilateral retinoblastoma).
Out of 39 children with clinically suspected to have retinoblastoma, of these 32 were male and 7 were female children. Mean age of patients was 2.5 years. Out of 39, only 25 children had unilateral and 14 had bilateral intraocular tumor on ultrasound and CT scan. It appeared as a heterogenous mass with areas of calcification and retro- orbital extension, was better seen on CT images. Ultrasound of orbits showed calcification in only 29 children out of 39. Only 3 children found to have trilateral retinoblastoma. Ultrasound was found to bediagnostic but CT showed better results for imagining and diagnosis of retinoblastoma (unilateral, bilateral).
This study shows that CT scan, is more accurate for the assessment of tumor size, localization and retro-orbital and intracranial extension of the retinoblastoma rather than other modalities. Thus CT scan, found to be affective in diagnosis, planning treatment and determining the prognosis of this disease.
Retinoblastoma, Leukocoria, CT scan, Doppler Ultrasound.
- Safia Izhar
- Shazia Kadri
- Department of Radiology,
- Samia Perwaiz Khan
- Department of Pharmacology, Jinnah Medical & Dental College, Karachi
NASWAR DIPPING, SHIFT IN BEHAVIOR IN MULTI ETHNICITY SETTING
Easy availability of various chewable options in big cities has lead to a shift in behavior in the ethnicity specific habit of smokeless tobacco (SLT). This study was designed to find out the usage of naswar and other SLTs in naswar specific ethnicity as well as non naswar ethnicities and frequency of Human Papilloma virus (HPV) in their oral cavities.
Oral rinse (20-40ml) was collected and questionnaire was filled by 293 multiple ethnicity subjects habitual of naswar dipping, from Karachi and Peshawar after an informed consent. They were given dental floss with brush to gently sweep around oral cavity and over lesions. Floss was left in oral rinse and stored at 4°C. DNA was extracted and PCR was performed using HPV consensus primers Gp5+/Gp6+.
The 293 subjects selected were divided into 3 groups; i. Original naswar users (56, Pathan residents of Peshawar), ii. Settler naswar users (79, Pathan residents of Karachi), and iii. adapted naswar users (158, various non naswar ethnicities). Peshawar subjects were not positive for leukoplakia or rough mucosa compared to rough mucosa in 43(54.4%) and leukoplakia in 30(37.9%) in subjects living in Karachi. Genetic testing for HPV showed 15(18.9%) samples from Karachi and 20(35.7%) samples from Peshawar, positive for HPV with significance difference of p-value of 0.029.
Epidemiological shift in behavior occurred due to change in ecology. Naswar dippers (Pathans) (40%) developed other addictions, whereas, subjects (22%) of other ethnicities became habitual to naswar. More comparative studies are required to further prove this.
Mouth Neoplasms; Tobacco; Smokeless; Carcinogens; Global health; Nicotine; Non-cigarette tobacco products
- Haya Naveen
- Dorset County Hospital, NHS Foundation Trust, UK,
- Saeeda Baig
- Wasfa Farooq
- Department of Biochemistry
- Hira Attique
- Department of Physiology, Ziauddin University
MEAN DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TRANSCUTANEOUS AND SERUM BILIRUBIN MEASUREMENTS
Total Serum bilirubin (TSB) is considered as the most authentic method for determining bilirubin levels. However, Transcutaneous Bilirubinometer, uses photometry to detect bilirubin level and can be considered as a reliable tool to assess bilirubin for the screening of neonatal jaundice in term neonates
To determine the mean difference between Transcutaneous bilirubin and serum bilirubin among jaundiced neonates.
This cross sectional study was conducted at Neonatal Intensive unit, Ziauddin University Hospital, Karachi. Total 150 patients, with clinical jaundice were included. Transcutaneous measurements were taken by application of Drager JM-105 (transcutaneous bilirubinometer) to the sternum of infants. Three readings were taken and the average value was recorded. Blood samples were obtained and Serum bilirubin was estimated. The difference of bilirubin in TcB and TSB techniques was calculated and compared using student t-test. Descriptive statistics were also calculated. Stratification was done and poststratification again student t-test was applied. P-value ≤0.05 was taken as significant in all analysis.
There were 78.7% male and 21.3% female patients. Mean age was 4.50±3.19 days. Mean weight of neonates was 2253.93±533.59 grams. Mean gestational age was 36.14±1.04 weeks. Mean bilirubin level in TcB and TSB was 13.04±4.07 mg/dl and 12.79±5.49 mg/dl respectively. The difference of bilirubin in TSB and TCB was -0.246±2.53 mg/dl and was not significant.
There was no significant mean difference of bilirubin in TCB and TSB techniques, therefore, Transcutaneous bilirubinometery can be accepted as a good device for the screening of neonatal jaundice.
Difference, Transcutaneous Bilirubin, Serum Bilirubin, Jaundice, Neonates
- Anum Hafeez
- Muhammad Iqbal
- Department of Pediatric Medicine, Ziauddin University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan
FREQUENCY AND PREDICTORS OF COPD AND RESTRICTIVE LUNG DISEASE IN PRIMARY CARE
To determine the frequency and risk factors of COPD and Restrictive Lung Diseases in a Primary Care Center in Karachi.
All patients coming to Primary Health Care Center presenting with cough were enrolled in the study. They were seen by Consultant Family Physician who filled the questionnaires after informed consent. Chest was examined and the patients underwent PEF. If PEF was <70% then office based spirometry test was done. Those who did not achieve reversibility in FEV1 after bronchodilation were labeled COPDers. Data was analyzed using SPSS 20. Mean and standard deviation were taken out for numerical data. Categorical data was shown in frequency and percentage. Chi-square was taken out to see association of risk factors with the outcome. P-value <0.05 was considered significant.
In our study, 54 (35.7%) participants had obstructive lung pathology. Prevalence of COPD came out to be 6.62% whereas7 subjects (4.7%) had restrictive lung disease. COPD was seen more in females as compared to males (84.6% vs 15.4% p-value<0.00). Also smoking had statistically significant association with COPD (42.5% p-value <0.00). All those who had COPD, smoked more than 11 years. Manifestation of the disease with cough (63.3%) and wheeze (33.9%)came out to be statistically significant .Past history of exacerbation of restrictive lung disease(1.3%, p-value 0.054) and MRC dyspnea score of stage 2 (25%, p-value 0.001) revealed statistically significant association with restrictive pathology.
The prevalence of COPD and restrictive lung diseases are soaring at an alarming rate owing to smoking and industrial pollution. It’s important to give smoking cessation advice to patients in primary care. A multidisciplinary approach with close cooperation of primary care physician, pulmonologist and cardiologist is imperative to put a halt to these ailments and thus reduce morbidity and mortality.
COPD, Bronchodilation, Spirometry, Restrictive Lung Disease, MRC, Dyspnea score.
- Fatima Jehangir
- Hamza Syed
- Anusheh Zia
- Ameen Arshad
- Neha Kamran
- Department of Family Medicine, Ziauddin University, Karachi
CORRELATION OF PLASMA FIBRINOGEN LEVELS WITH VARIABLES IN PATIENTS OF TYPE-II DIABETES MELLITUS WITH MICROVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS
Diabetes mellitus is considered as hypercoagulable state, where hypercoagulability of blood result in acceleration of atherosclerosis and diabetic microvascular complications. Three recognized diabetic microvascular complications include diabetic neuropathy, diabetic nephropathy and diabetic retinopathy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate association of plasma fibrinogen levels with other variables in patients with any of the three-recognized diabetic microvascular complications: diabetic neuropathy, diabetic retinopathy or diabetic nephropathy.
104 patients of T2DM from in Medical unit-II and ophthalmology ward, Services Hospital, Lahore from April to October 2017 were included in present study. The patients were divided into two groups of 52 patients each. Group 1 comprised of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients without any diabetic microvascular complications and Group II: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients with any of three recognized diabetic microvascular complications: diabetic neuropathy, diabetic nephropathy and diabetic retinopathy (52 patients). Plasma fibrinogen levels, blood sugar fasting (BSF), HbA1c and BMI were evaluated in all patients.
Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient, applied for measuring correlation of variables, showed statistically significant correlation (P < 0.05) of BSF r = 0.39; HbA1c r = 0.48 to plasma fibrinogen in patients with any of the three diabetic microvascular complications.
Conclusion: Higher fibrinogen levels (Clotting factor I) in plasma contribute significantly to establishment of microvascular complications in type-II diabetes mellitus patients. Fibrinogen levels were positively correlated with HbA1c and blood sugar fasting.
Plasma fibrinogen, microvascular complications, diabetes mellitus.
- Imran Ali Zaidi
- Kiran Namoos
- Farouk Qamar Malik
- Department of Biochemistry, Fatima Memorial College of Medicine and Dentistry, Lahore
- Anila Jaleel
- Department of Biochemistry. Shalamar Medical College Lahore
- Hassan Ali
- Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, The University of Lahore
- Amna Iqtidar
- Department of Paediatric Medicine, Unit-II Services Hospital, Lahore.
SYNTHESIS OF NANO – HYDROXYAPATITE AND NANO – FLUOROAPATITE PARTICLES BY SOL-GEL METHOD
Hydroxyapatite is a material which resembles the composition and crystal structure of hard tissues in human body. It is being used in dentistry as a bioactive material in dental implants and is a major constituent in the bone regenerative materials. Fluoroapatite is also a bioactive material and is more stable than Hydroxyapatite. The fluoride content is anti – bacterial and is working very efficiently as a component of dental restorative materials.
The objective is to synthesize the nano Hydroxyapatite and nanoFluoroapatite powder via sol-gel method, and compare the FTIR and Raman Spectrums of synthesized material with the FTIR and Raman of nano Hydroxyapatite and Fluoroapatite.
The materials were synthesized by sol – gel method and then evaluated by the FTIR and Raman spectroscopy to confirm the chemical structure of both the materials.
Results: FTIR and Raman Spectroscopy of the synthesized Hydroxyapatite and Fluoroapatite are then evaluated and compared with market grade materials, which confirm the presence of hydroxyl, phosphate and carbonate group in the obtained samples. Conclusion: Sol – gel is proved to be a reliable and simple method for the synthesis of nano Hydroxyapatite and Fluoroapatite particles. The obtained samples then compared with the available materials to confirm that the material synthesized is pure and chemically identical.
Hydroxyapatite, Fluoroapatite, FTIR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy
- Shoaib Khan
- Department of Science of Dental Materials, Ziauddin College of Dentistry, Ziauddin University. Karachi,
- Madiha Pirvani
- Department of Science of Dental Materials, Dow International Dental College, Dow University of Health Science. Karachi;
- Sadaf Humayoun
- Department of Science of Dental Materials, Rawal Institute of Health Sciences. Islamabad;
- Omair Anjum
- Department of Science of Dental Materials, Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore;
- Saima Akram
- Department of Oral Pathology, Ziauddin College of Dentistry, Ziauddin University, Karachi;
- Muhammad Asif Nathani
- Department of Science of Dental Materials, Altamash Institute of Dental Medicine, Karachi.
ENDOSCOPIC BIOPSY PROVEN CO-INFECTION OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI AND GIARDIA LAMBLIA IN ADULT POPULATION OF KARACHI CITY
Worldwide, the prevalence of pathogenic bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) and the protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) is well known. It is more common in densely populated area with poor sanitation in developing countries as compared to developed countries. Although the prevalence of these organisms is widely studied in our population but our study is a unique kind in its way where we have determined co-infection of H.pylori and G. lamblia in gastric and duodenal biopsies respectively. To know the prevalence of H. pylori, G. lamblia and their co-infection in endoscopic biopsy specimen received at Dr. Tahir laboratory, Hamdard Medical University, Karachi.
This prospective study was conducted in the department of Histopathology at Dr. Tahir Laboratory, Hamdard Medical University, Karachi during January 2016 – December 2017. All the consecutive cases of gastric and duodenal biopsies from the same patient received during 2 years were reviewed. The data obtained were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis using SPSS version 22.
A total of 187 gastric and duodenal biopsies (males = 99/52.9%, females = 88/47.0%) (age range = 22 to 71 years) were received through 2 years of duration. Out of 187 cases, H.pylori was found in 120 (64.1%) gastric biopsies, torphozoites of G.lamblia were seen in 42 (22.4%) duodenal biopsies, co-infection of H.pylori and G.lamblia was positive in 15 (8.0%)cases whereas no infection was observed by these organisms in 10 (5.3%) cases.
This study concludes a high prevalence of H. pylori & G. lamblia in our population. Moreover, the study also noted co-infection of these organisms in the study area.
H. pylori, G. lamblia, co-infection.
- Syed Mehmood Hasan
- Asma Shabbir
- Asma Shaikh
- Zareen Irshad
- Department of Pathology, Jinnah Sindh Medical University, Karachi
- Tahir Naeem Khan
- Dr. Tahir Laboratory, Karachi.
EFFECT OF AZADIRACHTICA INDICA LEAVES AQUEOUS EXTRACT ON ERYTHROMYCIN INDUCED HEPATIC DAMAGE
Erythromycin, a commonly used antibiotic for various respiratory tract infections, is well documented for its hepatotoxic effect, which is probably due to the oxidative stress produced by this drug. Azadirachtica Indica, commonly known as Neem is a rich source of various bioactive compounds and has shown strong antioxidant effect in various researches. This study was designed to find out the effect of aqueous extract of Neem leaves on liver enzymes; Alanine transaminase (ALT) and Aspartate transaminase (AST) against liver damage caused by erythromycin.
This study was conducted in Baqai Medical University, Karachi in 2017 spanning a period of 6 months. Eighty male albino wistar rats were taken randomly and were divided into 4 groups of 20 animals each; A(control), B (received erythromycin 100mg/kg body weight), C (received erythromycin 100mg/kg body weight plus aqueous Neem Extract at the dose of 500mg/kg body weight) and “D” (received only aqueous Neem Extract at 500mg/kg body weight). After 14 days of continuous treatment, rats were sacrificed and the blood samples were collected via cardiac puncture and then sent to the laboratory for the investigation of liver enzymes ALT and AST using standard reagent kits.
Serum ALT and AST enzymes were found to be decreased in group B and C. The results were Statistically significant.
Azadirachtica Indica aqueous extract showed protective effect on erythromycin induced hepatic damage.
Azadirachtica Indica, Aqueous extract, Erythromycin, Aspartate transaminase, Alanine transaminase, Hepatoprotective.
- Nausheen Adnan
- Iffat Raza
- Department of Anatomy, Karachi Institute of Medical Sciences, CMH
- Tahira Assad
- Department of Pharmacology, Karachi Institute of Medical Sciences, CMH
- Mahrukh Kamran
- Sahar Mubeen
- Department of Anatomy, DOW International Medical College (DUHS), Karachi
- Fauzia Perveen
- Department of Biochemistry, Rehman Medical College, Peshawar
BONE IS NOT JUST CALCIUM AND VITAMIN DA REVIEW OF ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS REQUIRED FOR BONE HEALTH
Bone formation is a constant procedure in which osteoblasts lay new bone and osteoclasts resorb it. Mineralization takes place at active bone formation sites where the extracellular matrix vesicles, the major sites of apatite mineral deposition, are present. Turnover of bone, which maintains its structure and integrity, has several events such as activation, resorption and osteogenesis by osteoblasts. The bone crystals proliferation depends on the presence of collagen, hormones, minerals and vitamins such as phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, zinc, fluoride, potassium, manganese, boron, copper, iron, calcium and a number of vitamins such as B,K,C,A,D, etc. Information regarding the elements involved in bone formation was retrieved through studies published up to 2017 in PubMed, Medline and other authentic search engines available in the University.
This review highlights the individual roles of specific vitamins and minerals at the respective steps of bone formation, insufficiency at all particular stages result in various bone pathologies, leading to deficiency disorders, fractures and poor friable bones. Since the role of vitamin D and calcium is well established therefore these were not included in this review.
Osteoblasts, Osteoclasts, Vitamins, Minerals, Osteogenesis, Collagen, RANK Ligand.
- Sana Lodhi
- Saeeda Baig
- Department of Biochemistry, Ziauddin University,
- Danial Arshad
- MediDent Clinics, Karachi.
FAST DISPERSION TECHNIQUES: APPROACHES AND RATIONALE FOR DEVELOPMENT OF FAST DISSOLVING TABLETS
Pharmaceutical companies have introduced several drug delivery systems in the field of Pharmaceutical sciences that provide better and faster therapeutic response in patients to modulate pain and inflammation. In the present article a detail on fast dissolving technique and suitability of dexibuprofen as model drug for such rapidly disintegrating formulations has been addressed. This review articles focuses on all aspects taken into consideration regarding formulation development parameters, technologies used, role of superdisintegrants incorporated and the latest advancement in the improvement of aforementioned drug delivery system to increase the patient compliance.
Drug delivery, Fast dissolving, Dexibuprofen, Superdisintegrants, Patient compliance
- Anas M. Hanif
- Ali Akbar Sial
- Anwar Ejaz Beg
- Atta- Ur- Rehman
- Faculty of Pharmacy, Ziauddin University, Karachi, Pakistan
- Huma Ali
- Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jinnah Sindh Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan
- Farya Zafar
- Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan
AWARENESS AND PRACTICES OF EPILEPTIC CARE AMONG SPECIAL EDUCATORS FOR EPILEPSY
Epilepsy is a common but usually stigmatized disease due to its presentation therefore; the awareness of care givers regarding epilepsy is crucial for better management and upbringing of child. This study aims to assess the degree of apprehension among special educators, as epilepsy is more prevalent in special children.
A cross-sectional study using questionnaire, based on interviews by 56 participants from numerous special schools of Karachi was conducted.
All special educators knew about epilepsy through their relevant courses. 85.7% of them dealt with the epileptic person directly during their practice. They explained epileptic attack as period of seizure (71.5%), period of loss of consciousness (64.3%), and memory loss (35.7%). 57.1% perceived causes of epilepsy to be inherited, as oxygen deficiency during birth46.4%, as birth defect46.4%, stroke 42.9% and 39.3% believe brain tumor can be the cause. Perceived triggers were (71.4%) emotional disturbance, (67.9%) stress, (53.6%) sleep deprivation and (60%) skipping medicine. Unfortunately, 7% of them consider epilepsy as contagious disease. 11% thinks epilepsy is some kind of spiritual possession or black magic. 30% stated that epileptics should be treated by Hakims while 25% believes quacks can cure it.
Overall knowledge was adequate and attitude was positive toward epileptic children. Favorably, 70 to 80% of them supported the idea that people with epilepsy can get good education and take up a job and even can marry and have family life.
Epilepsy, Educators, Knowledge, Attitude, Practice
- Ghazala Usman
- Misbah Zaheer
- Eraj Aftab
- Department of Community Medicine, Sindh Medical College, Jinnah Sindh Medical University, Karachi.
JOB RELATED STRESS AND ITS VARIOUS SOURCES AMONG NURSES WORKING AT LIAQUAT UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL, JAMSHORO
Job related stress has been identified as global health issue which deters the health of nurses. The objective of the study is to determine the severity of job related stress and find out the various sources of job related stress among Nurses of Liaquat University Hospital, Jamshoro.
A cross-sectional study was performed at Liaquat University Hospital, Jamshoro from 1st July 2015 to 31st January 2016. Study was accomplished on 100 registered nurses. Nurses having valid Pakistan Nursing Council License were included in the study. Purposive non probability sampling method was used to approach the subjects. Structured questionnaire (HCJSSQ) February 2008 was used for data collection. Data analysis was done by using SPSS software version 21.
Out of total 100 study participants, 90 (90%) were females and 10 (10%) were males with mean age of 32.29SD +7.025 years. Majority of nurses 40.64% reported moderate stress, 35.48% of nurse’s responded severe stress and 16.32% of nurses had mild stress. Among the sources of stress, leading source of stress was workload 56%, facing problems in relations with subordinate medical staff as 51%, emotional distress of patients as 50% and 38% of staff are accountable for the value of the work of other staff level of stress.
The study concluded that majority of nurses had job related stress that may cause negative impact on organizational climate. Work load was recognized as the prominent source of causing job related stress among nurses.
Nurses, Workload, Job related Stress.
- Ghulam Abbas Panhwar
- Aftab Ghouri
- Shaheed Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Medical University Larkana,
- Institute of Nursing, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi,
- Ghulam Mustafa Shaikh
- University of Sindh, Larkana Campus,
- Shaheen Sherali
- Indus College of Nursing and Midwifery, Karachi.
DISTRIBUTION AND DETERMINANTS OF SEDENTARY LIFESTYLE AMONG HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONALS
This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitudes of health care providers towards physical activity and healthy eating by measuring leisure-time physical activity and food intake patterns.
A cross sectional study was conducted on 211 participants using Modifiable Activity Questionnaire and Food Frequency questionnaires at the Jinnah Medical and Dental College (JMDC) and Aga Khan University Medical College (AKUMC). The targeted population was students from year 1 to 5 of MBBS, faculty & staff of medical college. Body composition analysis and questions assessing personal perception of healthy diet and lifestyle were performed.
Out of the 211 participants in this study, 55.18% spent time sitting at job for 6 or more hours, 33.2% spent at least 2-3 hours on screen time. Only 42.7% individuals exercised for less than 15 minutes in a week. The most consumed food groups in the participants were bread/roti (46.9%) followed by and hot beverages (51.7%). Seventy-one percent regarded their dietary habits as moderately healthy and reported that lack of leisure time (65.9%) and work/family commitment (38.4%) were the major restraints for being physically active. Conclusion: Health professionals followed sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy dietary patterns. The major limitation identified was being lack of time and willingness.
Sedentary Lifestyle; Physical Activity; Health, Diet; Awareness.
- Saiyida Kaunain Fatima
- Abdul Rahim Khan
- Jinnah Medical and Dental College,
- Syeda Sadia Fatima
- Afshan Akhtar
- Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Aga Khan University, Karachi.
REMOVAL OF SALIVARY GLAND MUCOCELE USING 980NM DIODE LASER
Mucoceles are small non-neoplastic cysts that are present in major and minor salivary glands of the oral cavity. They are formed due to the buildup of mucus. Mostly, these Mucoceles are present in young adults. Giving a local surgical excision is the preferable form of treatment. However, in order to avoid intraoperative surgical complications such as bleeding, edema and the need for sutures, a diode laser with the wavelength of 980 nm was used for the Excision of the Mucocele. As a result quick and improved healing was achieved.
Laser, Diode, Mucocele, Excision.
- Danial Arshad
- Department of Oral Biology,
- Sana Lodhi
- Department of Biochemistry, Ziauddin University, Karachi,
- M. Salman Zafar
- MediDent Clinics, Karachi.
METRONIDAZOLE ASSOCIATED SIDE EFFECT IN CEREBELLUM: A CASE REPORT
We interpret a case, manifesting Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging features in relation with Metronidazole (Flagyl) toxicity. MRI brain exhibited an abnormal signal intensity comprising symmetrically bilateral dentate nuclei of cerebellum. The metronidazole toxicity was identified on MR imaging characteristics and reinforced on a clinical basis. In the hospital, metronidazole was stop. Patient recovered clinically with cessation of metronidazole. Follow-up MR imaging was not performed. In this report, we present a case establishing a characteristic finding in MR images within the dentate nuclei of cerebellum. Patient was treated for liver abscess and presented with slurring of speech, generalized weakness, and dysarthia.
Dentate nuclei, Cerebellum, Metronidazole Toxicity, MRI
- Naila Younus
- Muhammad Ali
- Kashif Shazlee
- Department of Radiology,
- Shumaila Younus
- Department of Oral Pathology, Ziauddin University, Karachi.